Typhoid Fever

Salmonellosis Typhoid fever 

-Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi 

-Salmonella is a facultative gram-negative rod

-it is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and by contamination of food or water 

Symptoms & Signs

-Headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, “pea soup” diarrhea, erythematous maculopapular lesions that blanch on pressure (Rose spots), slow rise of fever to maximum and then slow return to normal (stepladder fever), relative bradycardia, splenomegaly, temperature pulse dissociation (bradycardia relative to fever)

Diagnosis 

Labs: leukopenia 

Culture: Culture of bacteria from blood, stool, urine, and bone marrow 

Treatment 

Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, azithromycin

Prevention

-Oral and intramuscular vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas

-Vaccine repeated after 5 years 

Q. What are the most serious complications of typhoid fever? gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation