Dengue

Dengue 

Dengue viruses are small, enveloped viruses which belong to the genus Flavivirus

It is transmitted primarily from human to human by the bite of the Aedes mosquito

-The incubation period is usually 7–10 days.

Symptoms & Signs 

-The clinical manifestations  range from self-limited dengue fever (DF) to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with shock syndrome

-Sudden onset of high fever, chills, headache, retro orbital pain, severe myalgias, arthralgias, low back pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, sore throat

-high fever which drops and recurs (saddleback fever) 

-maculopapular rash “islands of white in a sea of red” 

-petechial hemorrhages 

Plasma leakage: Shock due to intravascular hypovolemia from plasma leakage 

Diagnosis 

-Labs: Leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminases

-Virus detection: IgM and IgG ELISAs, PCR

Treatment 

-Oral rehydration, acetaminophen, avoid NSAIDS

-Volume replacement, platelet transfusions 

-Predictors of higher mortality: thrombocytopenia, acute hepatitis, acute kidney injury 

Q. What is the most specific and life-threatening feature of Dengue? Plasma leakage