-Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics.
-Tics are sudden, involuntary, rapid, uncontrollable, repetitive, nonrhythmic, stereotyped movements with no purpose.
-Symptoms begin before 21 years of age, most often by the age of 11
-the course is one of remission and relapse.
-the disorder is more common in males than females
Symptoms & Signs
Tics typically start early, at 3–5 years of age, and peak around 9–12 years
Phonic Tics: Throat-clearing,gruting, barking, sniffing, hissing
Coprolalia: Vulgar or obscene speech
Echolalia: Parroting the speech of others
Echopraxia: Imitation of others’ movements
Palilalia: Repetition of words or phrases
Motor tics: Eye Blinking, facial grimacing, sniffing, hopping, jumping, and kicking, body gyrations, complex obscene gestures, neck jerking, shoulder shrugging
Sensory tics: Tics consisting of pressure, tickling, and warm or cold sensations
Behavioral disorders: Anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit disorder, depression
Diagnosis is made based on history and physical examination
Laboratory tests are normal
Behavioral therapy: Cognitive behavioral therapy, Habit reversal training
α-Adrenergic agonists: the first-line therapies
Clonidine: Most frequent side-effects are sedation, orthostatic hypotension, constipation
Antipsychotics: Risperidone, Aripiprazole,olanzapine, ziprasidone, Haloperidol, Pimozide
Botulinum toxin A injections
-the disorder is chronic, with waxing and waning
-Majority will experience significant improvement by the end of adolescence (80%).