Mumps

Introduction

-Mumps is a viral infection which primarily affects salivary glands. 

-Mumps virus is a single-stranded RNA virus and is a member of paramyxovirus family 

-The virus is transmitted by the respiratory route via droplets, saliva, and fomites.

-The highest incidence of infection is usually during the late winter and spring months, but it can occur during any season.

-It is observed to occur most frequently in the 5- to 15-year age group. 

The incubation period of mumps is ~19 days

-Viremia allows the virus to travel to all body organs, including salivary glands and central nervous system.

Symptoms & Signs 

The prodrome of mumps consists of low-grade fever, headache, anorexia malaise, and myalgia

-Hallmark of mumps: Unilateral or bilateral parotid swelling

-Other manifestations: Epididymo-orchitis, pancreatitis, acquired deafness, aseptic meningitis and encephalitis 

-Mumps during the first trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage

Diagnosis 

-Diagnosis is made based on clinical findings or/and detection of viral RNA by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) or viral culture 

Treatment 

-Mumps is a self-limited, usually mild, disease. 

-Treatment is supportive and consists of antipyretics, fluids, and analgesics. 

-Stay home from school or work for 5 days after symptom onset.

Prevention 

-Usually Natural infection confers life-long protection

The MMR vaccine is given routinely subcutaneously to all healthy children at age 12–15 months with a second dose at age 4–6 years.

-Mumps vaccine contains live attenuated virus. It is not recommended for pregnant women

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