Talaromyces or Penicilliosis

Introduction 

Penicilliosis is a tuberculosis-like fungal disease caused by Talaromyces (formerly Penicillium) marneffei

It is most common in northeastern India, Thailand, Vietnam,Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong

-it most often affects patients with advanced HIV

-it is a dimorphic fungus; grows as a mold that produces a distinctive rose-colored pigment and as yeast-like cells that reproduce with septal formation 

-it is acquired by spore inhalation

Symptoms & Signs 

-It usually presents as a pulmonary disease or disseminated disease 

-Fever, fatigue, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, generalized umbilicated papular rash resembling molluscum contagiosum 

Diagnosis 

The diagnosis is made by culture or by histology 

-it forms characteristic yeast-like cells which are divided by a septum and produce a characteristic red pigment

Treatment 

The treatment of choice consists of amphotericin B followed by itraconazole 

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