Mitral Regurgitation 

Introduction 

-Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs due to the inability of the mitral valve to close adequately to prevent blood from returning back to the left atrium from the left ventricle during systole 

-Most common cause is mitral valve prolapse 

-Acute: papillary muscle rupture

-Chronic: Rheumatic fever, mitral valve prolapse 

Symptoms & Signs 

symptoms in proportion to  increase in left atrial pressure and pulmonary hypertension

– fatigue, exhaustion, atypical chest pain, progressive dyspnea, congestive heart failure, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, pleural effusion, edema, increased jugular pressure

-A holosystolic murmur best heard at the apex, with radiation to the axilla 

-Handgrip exercise increases the intensity of the murmur 

Diagnosis 

ECG: left atrial abnormality, left ventricular hypertrophy 

Chest X-ray: can show LV enlargement, left atrial enlargement, and pulmonary edema 

Echocardiography: the diagnostic test of choice; can show mitral valve regurgitation, size of left atrium, left ventricle, pulmonary pressure 

Treatment 

Medications: Diuretics, ACE inhibitors Surgical: Mitral valve repair or replacement

Mitral Regurgitation 

Introduction 

-Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs due to the inability of the mitral valve to close adequately to prevent blood from returning back to the left atrium from the left ventricle during systole 

-Most common cause is mitral valve prolapse 

-Acute: papillary muscle rupture

-Chronic: Rheumatic fever, mitral valve prolapse 

Symptoms & Signs 

symptoms in proportion to  increase in left atrial pressure and pulmonary hypertension

– fatigue, exhaustion, atypical chest pain, progressive dyspnea, congestive heart failure, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, pleural effusion, edema, increased jugular pressure

-A holosystolic murmur best heard at the apex, with radiation to the axilla 

-Handgrip exercise increases the intensity of the murmur 

Diagnosis 

ECG: left atrial abnormality, left ventricular hypertrophy 

Chest X-ray: can show LV enlargement, left atrial enlargement, and pulmonary edema 

Echocardiography: the diagnostic test of choice; can show mitral valve regurgitation, size of left atrium, left ventricle, pulmonary pressure 

Treatment 

Medications: Diuretics, ACE inhibitors 

Surgical: Mitral valve repair or replacement

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