-The four parathyroid glands produce and secrete PTH

-Hypoparathyroidism develops when the parathyroid glands fail to secrete sufficient quantities of PTH, resulting in a low calcium level and a high phosphorus level 

-The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is neck surgery with removal or destruction of the parathyroid glands

-Other causes include congenital abnormalities of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches (DiGeorge syndrome), autoimmune or drug induced or radiation induced hypothyroidism 

Symptoms & Signs 

Skin: Dry, scaly skin, coarse hair

Ocular: Cataracts, Papilledema 

Dental: enamel hypoplasia, defective root formation, delayed teeth eruption

Respiratory: Bronchospasm, laryngospasm, stridor 

Cardiac: Heart failure, Prolonged QT interval on ECG

Psychological: Confusion, behavioral changes, psychosis 

Neuromuscular: numbness, tingling, carpopedal spasms, seizures, Parkinsonism

Tetany: Spontaneous tonic muscular contractions; Classically diagnosed by Chvostek sign and Trousseau sign

Chvostek sign: twitching or contraction of the facial muscles in response to tapping the facial nerve at a point anterior to the ear and above the zygomatic bone

Trousseau sign: it is elicited by inflating the sphygmomanometer with the cuff around the arm above the systolic blood pressure for 3 min; The wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints flex, the DIP and PIP joints extend, and the fingers adduct


Labs: Inappropriately low or undetectable PTH level, low calcium level, high phosphorus level

EKG: a prolonged QT interval on the ECG


Recombinant PTH; IV or oral calcium, Vitamin D supplementation; correction of hypomagnesemia 

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